Skin hyper pigmentations are pigment disorders occurring in the skin, if for some reason there is an overproduction or uneven distribution of melanin, the skin pigment.
The most frequently mentioned factors that contribute to their emergence include:
- UV radiation (beware of the sun and solariums!),
- hormonal changes (pregnancy, menopause, hormonal medication, menstrual disorders, contraception),
- recurrent skin inflammation, photo allergies and others.
The spots may be of light beige to gray colour, of different shapes and sizes. Depending on the depth of location, they are referred to as epidermal hyper pigmentations (chloasma, lentigines, freckles, post-inflammatory hyper pigmentation) or epidermal-dermal or dermal hyper pigmentations (which are very deep, located in the dermis, virtually impossible to be removed or even lighten with cosmetics).
To help understand the causes of hyper pigmentations and methods of dealing with it, it is necessary to even briefly learn the basic concepts.
Skin pigment, melanin, is formed in melanocyte cells located in the deepest layer of the epidermis (basic layer). At the beginning of the trail of the so called melanogenesis the amino acid called tyrosine can be found, which, being treated with the tyrosinase enzyme, following a series of further oxidation reaction becomes melamine.
Process activators include:
- metals (such as copper, silver, gold),
- hormones (MSH pituitary hormone, sex hormones),
- inflammation, and more.
Melanin accumulates in the melanocyte dendrites – melanosomes. When melanin is free of keratinocytes, it goes out, to the stratum corneum.
Removal of hyper pigmentations is a very difficult and lengthy task, and the results are often visible only after two – three months. For the treatment to be effective, it should be based on active substances acting in different directions, at several stages of melanogenesis. During the enzymatic reaction, it is important to inhibit the melanin biosynthesis. This is possible by blocking the synthesis of the tyrosinase enzyme at the genetic level, reducing its effect or “blocking” melanogenesis stimulating agents. At the cellular level it is important to inhibit the transfer of melanin or melanosomes to keratinocytes by accelerating the exfoliation.
Among the factors activating the melanogenesis and affecting the formation of all hyper pigmentations the most important role is attributed to UV radiation. Therefore, creating cosmetics for treatment of skin discoloration it is necessary to include UV filters and antioxidants.
New Dermacos Anti-Spot cosmetics are the best example of synergy of various active ingredients, ingredients that inhibit melanogenesis in its various stages.